Biology  1407 Syllabus:    Spring  2012, Athens Campus      

Instructor:  Carlisle          e-mail:  mcarlisle@tvcc.edu        phone:  675-6262

Office:  A227     Hrs:  MW  ???.  TTh 8:30-9:30; 2-3pm.

     

Text:  Starr        

     

Biology  1407 Topics: Evolutionary development  of  all  types of  cells; Evidence

and  processes  of  evolution;  Characteristics  of  major  groups;  Development  of

systems  in  plants & animals;  Ecosystems and  populations;  Energy in biosphere.

              

Grading: 

Lab:     is  graded  separately  and will  be  25%  of  the  final  course average.

Lecture:   is 75% of grade.    Grade based  on  4  exams.   Each  exam worth 100 pts.

« No extra credit  assignments, though test may  have  bonus  questions. 

  

Daily:     Grades  of   5  points  each  will be taken  almost  every  day.  This  grade

            is a  test  & consists  of  from  1 to 10 questions  at  the  end  of  class.   At the

            end of the semester  these 20 grades will be added up to give one score. 

            The  daily  grade  replaces  the  lowest  test  score.

             

Course  Objectives:   Student shall  be  able  to perform  each  of  the  objectives

stated below for Biology  1407:

              

TEST  1.

1.)      Describe conditions  of  early earth  for chemical evolution. 

2.)      List  items  of  evidence for  &  processes  of  evolution.

3.)       Identify    conditions leading to speciation .

4.)       Compare  the prokaryote cell to the  eukaryote  cell.

5.)        Explain the causes  of  cell  complexity.

TEST  2.

6.)     Categorize organisms to taxonomic levels based on traits.

7.)     Use  cladograms  to  show  relationships  of  taxonomic  groups.

8.)     Describe importance of several single  celled  organisms.   

9.)     Compare development of  multicellular   plants  and   fungi.                            

TEST   3.

10.)     Recognize systems  & functions of  invertebrate animals .

11.)     Organize chart  of  related  invertebrate  groups.

12.)     Recognize systems  & functions of  vertebrate animals .

13.)     Organize chart  of  related  vertebrate  groups.

TEST  4.

14.)    State significance of  population graphs .

15.)    Organize a given set of organisms  into correct order  by trophic level

16.)    Characterize the world's major biomes and with respect to climate and life.

17.)    Predict importance  of  predator- prey  relationships, competition,

           and   symbiosis  to the community.

18.)     Describe  the movement  of  nutrient materials  through biogeochemical

            cycles that involve  the  living  and  nonliving  world.

                    

Test  question  types:     Grouping terms,  Match & T/F ,  Multiple choice

short  essay  and  short  answer,  completion  of  flow  charts.  

 

Syllabus  for  Biology  1407,  Spring 2012,   Carlisle                      page   2:

 

Make- ups  for  exams:    A makeup  test  must be  taken  within  2  class  periods

            after  the  exam.  Otherwise  it  will  be  a  zero,  and  the  daily grade  will

            take its  place.   A make-up test  will be  a different  test  than  the  regular.

            If  a  student  knows  he/she  will  be  absent,  make arrangements  to  take 

            it  early if that is possible. Note dates  of  exams  on  calendar.

 

Notes:    Good  notes are the best  way to study  and  these should be your first

priority for  studying.   Textbook  reading  assignments are  made.   They  are  a

great  backup  for  the  notes  you  take.  A  reading  guide  is  provided  here,

coordinated  with  the topics  and  the   testing  schedule.

 

 

Reading  Guide :

             

Test I:              A.        Evidence  & Processes                        Ch.17-19

                        B.        Early earth & conditions for  life:       Ch.  20

                        C.        Endosymbiosis & Cell complexity     Ch. 21_____

 

Test II:                        D.        Protists  & Early  Eukaryotes:             Ch.  22

                        E.         Fungi   &  Plants                                 Ch.  23 & 24

                        F.         Plant Tissues______________           Ch.  28 & 29

 

Test III:           G.        Invertebrates                                       Ch.  25

                        H.        Vertebrates                                          Ch.  26_____

 

Test IV.           J.          Populations                                         Ch. 45

                        K.        Community & diversity                      Ch. 46

                        L.         Niches &  Food Webs                         Ch. 47

                        M.        Biosphere and    biomes                      Ch. 48

           

 

 

Absences:     More  than  six  absences  may  result  in being  dropped.

 

Class  Restrictions:  No  cell  phones should  be left out or on during  class.

             If  emergency calls are  expected ,  skip  part  or all of class.

            A cell phone  may not be out during  an  exam.

            No  student  may  leave  and  return to test  during  exam  period.

            Turn in test  before  leaving.

 

Conduct:      Instructor  reserves right to  decide  matters of  class  conduct.

            Disruption  of  class, disregard  for  learning environment  may lead

            to dismissal  from  class.

 

 

 

 

 

TENTATIVE

Calendar  Biology  1407,  Spring 2012,   Carlisle,                        page  3:

MONDAY

23rd

TUESDAY

24th

WEDNESDAY

25th

THURSDAY

26th

JAN 30

 

 

31

FEB  1

 2

Feb 6

 

 

7

   

8

    

9

   

13

Exam #1

 

14

Exam #1

15

16

20

 

 

21

22

23

27

 

 

28

29

Mar 1st

Mar  5

 

 

6

7

      Exam #  2

8

    Exam #  2

12

 

 

 

19

 

 

20

21

22

26

 

 

27

28

29

Apr  2nd 

 

 

3

4

5

9

 

 

10

11

 

12

 

16

 

 

17

18

      Exam #  3

19

       Exam #  3

23

 

 

24

25

26

30

 

 

May 1st

2nd

3rd

May 7th

 

    8th

9th

10th

Exam #  4   during  FINAL   EXAMS  WEEK     

 

 

CONCEPTS  THAT  ARE  IMPORTANT

TO  THE  STUDY  OF  EVOLUTION

 

variation &  adaptation in   populations

as  a cause  of: specific  evolution.

 

fossil  record  &  stratigraphy used to  identify:

geological  eras. SEE  PAGE  270 - 271

 

radio-carbon  dating &  uranium / lead   ratio

 

homologous  organs   &    vestigial  organs

 

biochemical  divergence

 

selection  of  traits   &  fitness

selection  pressures in  nature

 

gene frequency in a stable  population

 

divergent  selection:   acts  on  1  species

convergent   selection:   works  on  2  different species

                                                                                        

germ  cell  mutation vs. somatic  cell  mutation

 

gene  flow   vs. genetic  drift

 

bottleneck  effect  or  founder  effect

 

artificial  selection

 

types  of  isolation   

 

transduction

 

punctuated  equilibrium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

primordial  earth  &  early  conditions

 

Miller  experiment  results

coacervates

 

early   cells  &  early cell  characteristics

 

prokaryotic;   unicellular;   heterotrophic;

 

anaerobic;     thermophilic;

 

autotrophic

 

eukaryotic

 

endosymbiosis

 

organelles  &  membrane  bound  nucleus

 

nucleus,  mitochondrion  &  chloroplast

 

cilia   &   flagellae

 

 

 

                        Biology   1407:     Evidence  for   Evolution.

 

1.         GENETIC  & PHYSICAL  DIFFERENCES  AMONG  MEMBERS  OF 

            THE  SAME  SPECIES  -   CALLED  VARIATION.

 

            1A.)     ARTIFICIAL  SELECTION           

 

 2.        FOSSIL  RECORD  EXTENDS  BACK  TO  3.8  BYA   (  3.8 x  10 9 YEARS)

 

            2A.)     BY COMPARISON ,  THE  DINOSAURS  BECAME  EXTINCT 

                        AT   65  x  10 6  YEARS  AGO.  THAT  IS  1.7 %  OF  3.8  BILLION.

 

3.         BIOGEOGRAPHY   SHOWS  PLANTS &  ANIMALS  HAVE  MOVED

            ACROSS  CONTINENTS  WHEN  CONTINENTS   WERE  STILL 

            CONNECTED

 

            3A.)      ISOLATION   SPEEDS  UP   EVOLUTION

 

4.         HOMOLOGOUS  ORGANS  &  EMBRYOLOGY:   COMPARE 

            FORELIMBS  OF  VERTEBRATES

 

            4A.)     EMBRYOS   REVEAL  CHANGES  IN  DEVELOPMENTAL   

                        GENETIC  PROGRAMS.   GILL  SLITS  FORM  IN  ALL  VERTS.

 

5.         BIOCHEMISTRY  OF  PROTEINS  SHOWS  THAT  GENETIC  CHANGE

              MAY   ALTER   PROTEINS  WITH  OR  WITHOUT   CHANGING  WHAT

                THE  PROTEIN  DOES

 

6.         VESTIGIAL  ORGANS  REMAIN  IN  BODY  BUT  ARE  NOT  ESSENTIAL

 

            6A.)    APPENDIX ;    WISDOM  TOOTH;  AURICULAR   MUSCLE;  

 

7.         BRAIN  SIZE  IN  VERTEBRATES  DOES  NOT  REFLECT   ON 

             INTELLIGENCE ,  SPEED  OR  SURVIVAL  CAPABILITY.

 

8.         MUTAGENS   FROM   ENVIRONMENT   CAUSE  DNA  CHANGES.

 

            8A.     CIGARETTE  SMOKE  CHEMICALS  INDUCE  TUMOR  GENES

 

9.         ADAPTATIONS   RESULT   FROM  LONG  TERM   EXPOSURE  TO

            NEW  ENVIRONMENTS

 

            9A.      MELANIN   ADAPTS   TO  SUNLIGHT  LEVELS.

                        THICKENING  OF  SKIN  ADAPTS  TO  PRESSURE.

 

 

 

                        Biology   1407:     Processes  of   Evolution.

 

I.       DIVERGENT  EVOLUTION  =   ALLOPATRIC  SPECIATION

 

            A.   Emergence of  variations that are  successful;

                        epigenetic  activity

            B.  Mutations  that  are valuable  may succeed

                       in different  environment

            C.   Migration  of  part  of  population  to  islands

                        or  isolated  areas  may  lead  to new  varieties.

            D.    Reaction   of embryo  to  environmental  factors:

                        epigenetic  reaction.

 

 

 

II.        CONVERGENT  EVOLUTION

 

            A.   Environmental  pressure  on  very  different  families,  orders ,

                        or  phyla

            B.    Reaction  creates  similar  effects  of  physical traits  in

                        very  different  species.

 

 

 

 

 

III.       NATURAL  SELECTION  =   SELECTION  PRESSURE

           

            A.   Pressures  from  nonliving  world  include

                        1.   habitat

                        2.   climate  (  rainfall , temperature)

                        3.   light  &  U,V

                        4.   oxygen  availability

 

            B.    Pressures  from  living  world

                        1.   nutrients  ?  wastes  provided  by  nerby  species

                        2.    predation   

                        3.    competition

                        4.   chemical  defenses like  antibiotics,  poisons (creosote)

 

            C.     Lethal  mutations  cause the  decline  of  one  gene  while

                        another  form  increases  in  frequency.

           

 

 

IV.         GENE  FLOW  =   mixing  of gene  populations

 

            A.    MIGRATION   of   one  variety  to  a  new  area

                        followed  by  interbreeding  with   another  variety

                        and  forming  new  gene  combinations

 

            B.  Sudden  accidental  interbreeding  between  groups  who

                        were formerly  separated by  geographical   barriers .

 

 

 

 

 

V.        GENETIC  DRIFT   =  prevention  of  mixing  genes,  OR   a  trend

                                                      away  from  widespread  random  mating.

 

            A.    Sub-groups  of  a  species  with  a  subgroup  of  the  gene  pool  are

                        separated   from  the  larger  group.  The  sub group  may  enlarge

                        to  a  ‘new’  population.

 

            B.      BOTTLENECK  effect   results  if  the  gene  pool  mentioned  in A

                           is  very  small.  Limited  gene  pool  means susceptibility  to  disease.

                          Also  called  the  FOUNDER  effect.

 

            C.      ARTIFICIAL  SELECTION  =  use  of  specific  plants  &  animals  with

                            desired  traits   to  be  the  parent  stock  of  new  populations.

                        Also   called  SELECTIVE   BREEDING

                         (for  productivity,  strength  or other  desired  appearance )

                       

    

 

 

VI.       MEIOSIS   =   reduction  of  chromosome count

 

            A.        New   chromosome   combinations  result  from

                         SEXUAL  REPRODUCTION  (FERTILIZATION).

 

            B.       Crossing  over  during  the  first  stage  of  meiosis

                           causes  new combinations  even  from  the  same  parents.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VII.     SYMPATRIC  SPECIATION

 

            A.        Hybridization  of  2 species  with  different  chromosome

                           counts:     may  result   in  sterility.with  an  odd  #

 

            B.        Spontaneous     doubling  of  chromosome  count  from

                               odd  #   to  an  even #   allows   new  meiosis   and

                                possible  FERTILITY   of  new  species.

 

 

 

VIII.    ISOLATION

 

            A.)       Geographic   =   mountain,  ocean,  canyon,  desert        

 

B.)        Behavioral  =   change  in  courtship,  feeding,  etc.    

 

            C.)        Temporal    =    time  of  year  or  time  of  day  changes.

 

            D.)        Ecological     =  change  in niche   &  habitat  might  happen 

                                                        even  within  short  distances 

 

            E.)       Mechanical    =  physical  inability  to  mate  or  have  young  

 

            F.)        Reproductive  isolation  follows  when  2  species do  mate: 

 

                         1.)     gametes  cannot  fuse,  chemical incompatibility.

                         2.)     embryos   die,   due  to  some  defect.

                         3.)     hybrids  cannot  compete  for  food,  habitat.

                         4.)     hybrids  sterile   because  of  infertile  chromosome #

                                    MULE  =   horse X donkey

 

 

 

IX.       PUNCTUATED  EQUILIBRIUM   =   long  term  stability

 

            A.        changes  occur  quickly  and  survive

 

            B.        no  further  change  for  a long  time:  stability  of  population 

 

           

                                                                       

 

X.        TRANSDUCTION  =   transfer  of  genes  from  species  to  species  by  virus                  

 

 

              WORDS  THAT  DESCRIBE  CELLS

             iN  cOntraStING  GROUPS

     

PROKARYOTE             ARCHAEBACTERIA

        VS.                                                               VS.

EUKARYOTE                     EUBACTERIA

 

 

 

HETEROTROPHIC             ANAEROBIC  

             VS.                                                         .VS.

AUTOTROPHIC                   AEROBIC

 

 

 

PHOTOSYNTHESIS             CYANOBACTERIA

                     VS.                                                            VS.

CHEMOSYNTHESIS            GREEN  NONSULFUR

                                                         BACTERIA

 

 

 

ANOXYGENIC  PHOTOSYNTHESIS

VS.

OXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Protists,  Fungi  &  Plants

 

Protists  divided into  groups  by  ecological 

or descriptive terms, not Phylum  names

     

Flagellates

Diplomonads:  Giardia

     

Parabasalid:     Trichomonas.  Trichonympha 

     

Trypanosomes:       Trypanosoma

              

Plankton

Dinoflagellates:    a.)   Noctiluca               b.)   Gymnodinium            &  Gonyaulax

     

Radiolarians:          silica  shell +  ameboid  cell  +  algae

Foraminifera:           calcium  carbonate  shell  +  ameboid  cell 

Coccolithophores:     calcium  carbonate  shell

     

Diatoms:                      silica  shell

             

Parasites:

Apicomplexans = Sporozoans:            Malaria  caused  by  Plasmodium

     

Decomposers

Cilates                                                 Paramecium

     

Slime  molds (Myxomycetes):            Physarum

     

                Amebozoa:                 Entameba,  Chaos, Ameba

             

Producers

Red algae                                deep  water  algae;  medicine

     

Brown  algae                           Unique   marine  ecosystems ,  food products

             

               Green  algae                            Food  web

 

 

              

ADAPTATIONS  OF  PROTISTS

 

some  multicellular forms;  most  unicellular

 

autotrophic algae &  heterotrophic  protozoa

 

complex  cells (mostly  in aqueous  environments)

 

cell  walls  with  variable  composition

 

shells of lime,  silica  (called  tests)

 

cilia or flagellae  for  locomotion

 

specialized cilia or other features in  some

 

 

Fungi  divided  by reproduction & other traits

                         

               Asco    -   mycetes       sac fungi  &  some  “yeasts”

       

Zygo                “            molds

       

Basidio            “          club fungi =   mushrooms,  bracket  fungi

       

Deutero           “          Penicillium

       

Chytrids                      diseases  of  some  amphibians

       

Microsporidia              living  in  some  invertebrates

       

Oomycotes                 tree  parasites

 

 

 

 

ADAPTATIONS  OF   FUNGI 

 

rapid  growth

 

cell  walls  with chitin

 

extracellular   digestion

 

mycelium  formed  by  hyphae

 

asexual  spores on   sporangia

 

mating  strains  produce  sexual spores

 

require  moisture, but  endure long time

            in  suspended  animation

 

 

 

 

Fungi

Economic  benefits                           Disease  &  crop  parasites

             

tree  roots-  mycorhizae                                   corn smut ,    wheat  rust

              

food  products                                                            chestnut blight,  potato  blight

       

pest  killing                                                      histoplasmosis;   skin fungi

       

antibiotics                                                        wood  destruction

       

recycling  =     decomposition                         sudden  oak  death

 

  

 

 

 

 

TERMS  IMPORTANT  TO  PLANT  PHYSIOLOGY &  ADAPTATION

 

GROUPS  OF  PLANTS                                                      GEOLOGICAL  AGE        

 

1.

 

2.

 

3.

 

4.

 

 

 

 

 

Plants  divided by cell types and reproduction 

 

Type                                                   Ecological Importance

 

Nonvascular

Mosses                                                fuel, soil production

                                                NON-SEED

Vascular

Ferns                                                               coal  deposits

             

Conifers                                              major  forests

                                                            carbon  reserve

             

Flowering plants                                 major  forests ;              SEED

                                                most  diverse  group

                                                important  food  producers

 

 

 

ADAPTATIONS  of  PLANTS  to DRY LAND 

         

1.        CELL  SPECIALIZATION

 

2.       VASCULAR  TISSUE & ROOTS

                                               

3.        LEAF  SHAPES

 

4.        HORMONE  CONTROL

 

5.        SAP RESISTING  FREEZE

 

6.       CUTICLES & LEAF  PITS                                        

 

7.       FLOWERS   &  FRUITS

 

8.       DORMANCY

  ADAPTATIONS  OF  PLANT   TISSUES

 

Types  of  cells                                   Function

          

vascular  tissue                                    water (xylem)

                                                            sap  transport  (phloem)

             

parenchyma                                         photosynthesis;

                                                            soft tissue  of  fruits

             

sclerenchyma                                       protection; seed coats

epidermis                                             protection;

                                                            stomata for  gas exchange

             

fibers                                                   support

             

ê meristem                                        tissue production

             

hormone  secreting                              growth control, etc.

 

gametophyte                                       produce male & female cells

see diagrams on plant

reproduction

 

 

 

 

CONTROL  OF  PLANT  GROWTH  &  DEVELOPMENT

 

Nutrient  availability               Soil  content  &  packing  of  soil  grains

                                                Bacterial  activity   & Mycorhizae

 

Seeds                                       Factors  to  preserve,  save  seed

                                                Factors  that cause dormancy, germination

 

Asexual  propagation              reproduction without seeds

 

                                                Apical  :Light  induced hormones: auxin

 Meristem                               Root growth

                                                Lateral : may be dominated  by  apical

 

Geotropism                             plant roots grow  downward

Phototropism                           plant bends to face leaf to light

 

Photoperiodism:                      Long day vs. Short day  plants: 

 

Ripening  of  fruit                   ethylene

 

Light &  Heat                          C3  plants   vs.   C4  plants

 

Attracting  pollinators             Color,   odor,  co-evolution,

 

Toxins  in  plants                     on thorns;   in leaves; 

 

 

ADAPTATIONS  OF  FLOWERING  PLANTS

 

some require  insects  to  pollinate

 

short  day  &  long  day plants

 

dormancy  in  cold  weather

 

DOUBLE FERTILIZATION